Marine debris is defined by the National Ocean Service as "any persistent solid material that is
manufactured or processed and directly or indirectly, intentionally or unintentionally,
disposed of or abandoned into the marine environment or the Great Lakes from any source."
Debris is everywherefound around every major body of water on the planet, and below water as well.
Marine debris is a global pollution problem that impacts human health and safety, endangers wildlife and
aquatic habitats, and costs local and national economies millions in wasted resources and lost revenues.
How Does Trash Become Marine Debris?
Many people assume that if trash exists in the ocean, it must be that the fishing and shipping industries
are to blame. But in fact, only 20% of the items found in the ocean can be linked to ocean-based sources,
like commercial fishing vessels, cargo ships (discharge of containers and garbage), or pleasure cruise ships.
The remainder (80%) is due to land-based sources, like litter (from pedestrians, motorists, beach visitors),
industrial discharges (in the form of plastic pellets and powders), and garbage management (ill-fitting
trash can lids, etc).
There is growing research about plastic debris too small to be caught by existing filters being discharged by
water treatment systems. This debris may take the form of microbeads (added to some personal care products as
exfolients) rinsed down drains, or synthetic fibers from clothing or other items that are laundered. A recent
study of the San Francisco Bay found that eight waste water treatment plants
discharged an average of 490,000 particles of microplastic per day into the Bay.
Trashing California's Beaches
California residents and tourists love our coast and ocean, making more than 150 million
visits to California beaches each year. The effort to keep our shorelines clear of marine debris comes
at a significant cost. A 2012 study determined that 90 west coast communities spend a total of more than
$520,000,000 each year to combat litter.
In 1975, the National Academy of Sciences estimated that ocean-based sources, such as cargo
ships and cruise liners, dumped 14 billion pounds of garbage into the ocean. In 1988, the U.S.
signed onto MARPOL Annex V, joining 64 other countries that signed the international protocol that
regulates ocean dumping and made it illegal to dump plastic into the ocean. Even so, plastic pollution
is a major problem. A 2001 study found an average of 334,271 pieces of plastic per
square mile in the North Pacific Central Gyre, which serves as a natural eddy system to concentrate
material. A 2009 voyage to that same region found plastic particles in over 100
consecutive surface tows over approximately 8 days of sampling. A 2015 paper analyzing multiple
research studies estimated between 15 to 51 trillion particles of floating microplastic
(defined as smaller than 200 mm) are in the world's ocean, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tonnes.
In 2015, a team of researchers estimated that the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the
world's oceans averaged 8.4 million metric tonnes (18.5 billion pounds) per year.
All this debris in the marine environment means hazards for animals and humans. Marine debris affects at
least 817 species worldwide, up 23% from a review performed in 2012,
including all known sea turtle species and about half of all of marine mammal species. More than
80% of these impacts were associated with plastic debris.
How Marine Debris Harms Wildlife
Common items like fishing line, strapping bands and six-pack rings can hamper the mobility of
marine animals and cause injury. Once entangled, animals have trouble eating, breathing or swimming,
all of which can have fatal results. Plastics do not biodegrade and may continue to trap and kill
animals year after year. Marine debris entanglements have been documented for more than
275 species of animals, including 46% of all species of marine mammals. (Read summaries of some
recent whale entanglements in the Monterey Bay National
Birds, fish and mammals can mistake plastic for food. 245 different species
have been found to have ingested marine debris. Debris may cause choking and injuries,
and with plastic filling their stomachs, animals may have a false feeling of being
full and may die of starvation. Sea turtles mistake plastic bags for jellyfish, one of their favorite
foods. Ingestion of debris has been documented in 56% of cetacean species.
Even gray whales have been found dead with plastic bags and sheeting in their stomachs. A recent study of
harbor seals in the Netherlands found that more than 12% had plastic in their
digestive system. 95% of Northern Fulmars studied in the North Sea between 2007 and 2011 were
found to contain plastic, on an average 0.38 grams. This could equal as much as 8.4% of the bird's body weight.
The Laysan albatross is a sea bird that nests in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands.
The adult birds collect plastic debris (along with food) from the ocean to feed to their chicks. In
a study of dead chicks during 1994 and 1995, 97.6% of carcasses were found to contain
plastic. (View a powerful
short video filmed at Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.)
Disruption of Habitat
Floating marine debris can provide a new and increased method of transport for species across vast ocean
distances, which may cause trouble for biodiversity if the introduced species prove to be invasive. A
2002 study of 30 remote islands throughout the world showed that marine debris more than
doubled the "rafting" opportunities for species. In 2005 and 2006, surveys of marine debris
in the Seychelles Islands showed that on some beaches more than 60% of debris items
carried non-native species.
Marine debris is not just an issue for the surface of the ocean. Debris is also found on the deep ocean
floor. An extensive survey extending down to 4,000 meters off the coast of Monterey
found that debris was more common in the deeper parts of Monterey Canyon, below 2,000 feet. Found items
included large numbers of plastic bags, as well as metal cans, fishing equipment, glass bottles, shoes,
How Marine Debris Harms People
Marine debris can present a danger to human health. Nails, glass, and syringes on the beach
can cause physical harm to beach-goers. Additionally, trash in our waterways increases the amount of
pathogens and chemicals, impacting water quality.
A study of predatory fishes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre found that 19%
of the individuals contained marine debris, most of it plastic. This included species commonly
eaten by people. A 2015 study of fish and shellfish for sale in markets found 28%
of individual fish sampled in Indonesia and 25% in California contained anthropogenic debris
in their digestive tracts. Plastic debris serves to concentrate and transport chemical
pollutants into the marine food web, and potentially to human diets. At least 78% of the
priority pollutants and 61% of priority substances listed as toxic by the United States EPA
and the European Union are associated with plastic debris. Chemicals of concern include those
used in the manufacture of the plastics, as well as pollutants present in the ocean water
absorbed and concentrated in the plastic (and thus made available for animal consumption).
A study of fish that consumed plastic that had absorbed chemical pollutants
from the marine environment were found to bioaccumulate the chemicals, resulting in greater
physical harm than to fish that consumed plastic that had not been exposed to a marine environment.
Marine debris is a hazard to economic health. Fishing line and nets can entangle propellers,
causing damage to boats. Unsightly trash on beaches detracts from tourism. The Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation released a report valuing different marine debris abatement measures
and found that the loss of tourism from littered beaches in the APEC region was $622 million/year. The
damage to the fishing industry totaled $364 million/year, the damage to the shipping industry was $279
million/year, and the total cost of marine debris in the APEC Region totaled $1.265 billion/year.
(The APEC Region does not include California, but an estimate can be drawn from the comparison. The
APEC Region has a $207 billion marine economy; California has a $46 billion marine economy.
How Can Individuals Help?
Use Less Stuff, and Make Careful Consumer Choices
Creating less waste in the first place means there will be less marine debris. You can start by being a
smart shopper. Think before making a purchase. Is the item something that you need? Can you instead use something
that you already have? Can you borrow the item or check it out from a lending library? Can you purchase it used
from a thrift or consignment shop? Can you find this item for sale with less packaging? Can you purchase it in
bulk? If not, is there a good substitute that you can find with less packaging, or with packaging that can
be composted or easily recycled (like cardboard or glass)? Can you invest in a reusable item that will replace
a disposable item? Is this a durable item that you can reuse over and over,
or use for a different purpose once the original use has ended? And as the final choice, is the item and/or
its packaging recyclable if it is a disposable item that can not be reused? Learn more ways to
"Make Trash Extinct."
- Refuse disposables, reduce, reuse and recycle (in that order) at home,
work and school.
- Buy reusable products and products made from recycled
materials with little or no packaging.
- Avoid personal care products containing microbeads. If it doesn't say so on the
front of the package, you can look for plastic listed in the ingredients. Look for
polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate or polymethyl methacrylate.
- Choose natural over synthetic fibers when possible, particularly for things that will
be washed frequently. Consider investing in a special filter for your washing machine (initially
developed to protect septic systems from non-biodegradable fibers). Plastic Pollution Coalition offers additional tips.
- Keep storm drains clean - they drain
to waterways and the ocean.
- Keep cigarette butts off streets and
- Properly dispose of fishing lines,
nets and hooks. Recycle your monofilament fishing line. Participate in an effort to
make portable fishing line containers from reused materials
and distribute them to the fishing community.
- Learn about proposed and potential government action that might impact marine
debris, such as plastic bag and smoking bans, extended producer responsibility laws,
bottle bills, street sweeping policies, etc.
- Participate in the Coastal
Commissions programs, such as:
Almost 90 percent of floating marine debris is plastic.
Due to its
durability, buoyancy, and ability to accumulate and concentrate toxins
present in the ocean, plastic is especially harmful to marine life.
One type of plastic debris found all over the world are plastic pellets,
or "nurdles," which are the raw material transported to plastics manufacturing
facilities to be melted into products such as disposable forks and bottles,
computer monitors, toys, etc. To learn about (and perhaps participate in) a
study of these pellets' accumulation of organic pollutants from sea water,
visit International Pellet Watch.
Have you heard of the "Pacific Garbage Patch" and want to learn more? Contrary to some
reports, it is not a giant floating island of trash in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is,
however, a major environmental concern. A better analogy than an island is a plastic soup, with
debris found throughout the water column. Here are a few links to organizations with information
on the problem of plastic pollution in the ocean:
To view the Algalita Marine Research and Education video on the subject, Synthetic Sea,
borrow it from our Lending Library or
find it on their website.
Photographer Chris Jordan has created a blog, www.midwayjourney.com, documenting the experience
of visiting Midway Island with other artists and journalists. The site includes powerful videos
depicting the impact of plastic debris on the Laysan albatross population that nests there.
This project also has a Youtube
channel with many short videos.
Looking for images of marine debris that you can use? Find some on the
Marine Debris Program's flickr page.
Reports on the topic of Marine Debris:
Access California Coastal Cleanup Day historical data,
including "top ten" lists of debris items, and collection data dating back to 1989.
Page last updated May 2017.
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