The Problem With Marine Debris
Marine debris is defined as "any persistent solid material that is manufactured or processed and directly or indirectly, intentionally or unintentionally, disposed of or abandoned into the marine environment or the Great Lakes from any source." Debris is everywherefound around every major body of water on the planet, and below water as well. Marine debris is a global pollution problem that impacts human health and safety, endangers wildlife and aquatic habitats, and costs local and national economies millions in wasted resources and lost revenues.
How Does Trash Become Marine Debris?
Many people assume that if trash exists in the ocean, it must be that the fishing and shipping industries are to blame. But in fact, only 20% of the items found in the ocean can be linked to ocean-based sources, like commercial fishing vessels, cargo ships (discharge of containers and garbage), or pleasure cruise ships.
The remainder (80%) is due to land-based sources, like litter (from pedestrians, motorists, beach visitors), industrial discharges (in the form of plastic pellets and powders), and garbage management (ill-fitting trash can lids, etc).
There is growing research about plastic debris too small to be caught by existing filters being discharged by water treatment systems. This debris may take the form of microbeads (added to some personal care products as exfolients) rinsed down drains, or synthetic fibers from clothing or other items that are laundered. A recent study of the San Francisco Bay found that eight waste water treatment plants discharged an average of 490,000 particles of microplastic per day into the Bay.
Trashing California's Beaches
California residents and tourists love our coast and ocean, making more than 150 million visits to California beaches each year. The effort to keep our shorelines clear of marine debris comes at a significant cost. A 2012 study determined that 90 west coast communities spend a total of more than $520,000,000 each year to combat litter.
In 1975, the National Academy of Sciences estimated that ocean-based sources, such as cargo ships and cruise liners, dumped 14 billion pounds of garbage into the ocean. In 1988, the U.S. signed onto MARPOL Annex V, joining 64 other countries that signed the international protocol that regulates ocean dumping and made it illegal to dump plastic into the ocean. Even so, plastic pollution is a major problem. A 2001 study found an average of 334,271 pieces of plastic per square mile in the North Pacific Central Gyre, which serves as a natural eddy system to concentrate material. A 2009 voyage to that same region found plastic particles in over 100 consecutive surface tows over approximately 8 days of sampling. A 2015 paper analyzing multiple research studies estimated between 15 to 51 trillion particles of floating microplastic (defined as smaller than 200 mm) are in the world's ocean, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tonnes. In 2015, a team of researchers estimated that the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the world's oceans averaged 8.4 million metric tonnes (18.5 billion pounds) per year. All this debris in the marine environment means hazards for animals and humans. Marine debris affects at least 817 species worldwide, up 23% from a review performed in 2012, including all known sea turtle species and about half of all of marine mammal species. More than 80% of these impacts were associated with plastic debris.
How Marine Debris Harms Wildlife
Common items like fishing line, strapping bands and six-pack rings can hamper the mobility of marine animals and cause injury. Once entangled, animals have trouble eating, breathing or swimming, all of which can have fatal results. Plastics do not biodegrade and may continue to trap and kill animals year after year. Marine debris entanglements have been documented for more than 275 species of animals, including 46% of all species of marine mammals. (Read summaries of some recent whale entanglements in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.)
Birds, fish and mammals can mistake plastic for food. 245 different species have been found to have ingested marine debris. Debris may cause choking and injuries, and with plastic filling their stomachs, animals may have a false feeling of being full and may die of starvation. Sea turtles mistake plastic bags for jellyfish, one of their favorite foods. Ingestion of debris has been documented in 56% of cetacean species. Even gray whales have been found dead with plastic bags and sheeting in their stomachs. A recent study of harbor seals in the Netherlands found that more than 12% had plastic in their digestive system. 95% of Northern Fulmars studied in the North Sea between 2007 and 2011 were found to contain plastic, on an average 0.38 grams. This could equal as much as 8.4% of the bird's body weight.
The Laysan albatross is a sea bird that nests in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. The adult birds collect plastic debris (along with food) from the ocean to feed to their chicks. In a study of dead chicks during 1994 and 1995, 97.6% of carcasses were found to contain plastic. (View a powerful short video filmed at Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.)
Disruption of Habitat
Floating marine debris can provide a new and increased method of transport for species across vast ocean distances, which may cause trouble for biodiversity if the introduced species prove to be invasive. A 2002 study of 30 remote islands throughout the world showed that marine debris more than doubled the "rafting" opportunities for species. In 2005 and 2006, surveys of marine debris in the Seychelles Islands showed that on some beaches more than 60% of debris items carried non-native species.
Marine debris is not just an issue for the surface of the ocean. Debris is also found on the deep ocean floor. An extensive survey extending down to 4,000 meters off the coast of Monterey found that debris was more common in the deeper parts of Monterey Canyon, below 2,000 feet. Found items included large numbers of plastic bags, as well as metal cans, fishing equipment, glass bottles, shoes, and tires.
How Marine Debris Harms People
Marine debris can present a danger to human health. Nails, glass, and syringes on the beach can cause physical harm to beach-goers. Additionally, trash in our waterways increases the amount of pathogens and chemicals, impacting water quality.
A study of predatory fishes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre found that 19% of the individuals contained marine debris, most of it plastic. This included species commonly eaten by people. A 2015 study of fish and shellfish for sale in markets found 28% of individual fish sampled in Indonesia and 25% in California contained anthropogenic debris in their digestive tracts. Plastic debris serves to concentrate and transport chemical pollutants into the marine food web, and potentially to human diets. At least 78% of the priority pollutants and 61% of priority substances listed as toxic by the United States EPA and the European Union are associated with plastic debris, either as ingredients of plastic or those absorbed by plastic from the environment. Chemicals of concern include those used in the manufacture of the plastics, as well as pollutants present in the ocean water absorbed and concentrated in the plastic (and thus made available for animal consumption). A study of fish that consumed plastic that had absorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment were found to bioaccumulate the chemicals, resulting in greater physical harm than to fish that consumed plastic that had not been exposed to a marine environment.
Marine debris is a hazard to economic health. Fishing line and nets can entangle propellers, causing damage to boats. Unsightly trash on beaches detracts from tourism. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation released a report valuing different marine debris abatement measures and found that the loss of tourism from littered beaches in the APEC region was $622 million/year. The damage to the fishing industry totaled $364 million/year, the damage to the shipping industry was $279 million/year, and the total cost of marine debris in the APEC Region totaled $1.265 billion/year. (The APEC Region does not include California, but an estimate can be drawn from the comparison. The APEC Region has a $207 billion marine economy; California has a $46 billion marine economy.
How Can Individuals Help?Use Less Stuff, and Make Careful Consumer Choices
Creating less waste in the first place means there will be less marine debris. You can start by being a smart shopper. Think before making a purchase. Is the item something that you need? Can you instead use something that you already have? Can you borrow the item or check it out from a lending library? Can you purchase it used from a thrift or consignment shop? Can you find this item for sale with less packaging? Can you purchase it in bulk? If not, is there a good substitute that you can find with less packaging, or with packaging that can be composted or easily recycled (like cardboard or glass)? Can you invest in a reusable item that will replace a disposable item? Is this a durable item that you can reuse over and over, or use for a different purpose once the original use has ended? And as the final choice, is the item and/or its packaging recyclable if it is a disposable item that can not be reused? Learn more ways to "Make Trash Extinct."
Almost 90 percent of floating marine debris is plastic. Due to its durability, buoyancy, and ability to accumulate and concentrate toxins present in the ocean, plastic is especially harmful to marine life.
One type of plastic debris found all over the world are plastic pellets, or "nurdles," which are the raw material transported to plastics manufacturing facilities to be melted into products such as disposable forks and bottles, computer monitors, toys, etc. To learn about (and perhaps participate in) a study of these pellets' accumulation of organic pollutants from sea water, visit International Pellet Watch.
- Refuse disposables, reduce, reuse and recycle (in that order) at home, work and school.
- Buy reusable products and products made from recycled materials with little or no packaging.
- Avoid personal care products containing microbeads. If it doesn't say so on the front of the package, you can look for plastic listed in the ingredients. Look for polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate or polymethyl methacrylate.
- Choose natural over synthetic fibers when possible, particularly for things that will be washed frequently.
- Keep storm drains clean - they drain to waterways and the ocean.
- Keep cigarette butts off streets and beaches.
- Properly dispose of fishing lines, nets and hooks. Recycle your monofilament fishing line.
- Learn about proposed and potential government action that might impact marine debris, such as plastic bag and smoking bans, extended producer responsibility laws, bottle bills, street sweeping policies, etc.
- Participate in the Coastal Commissions programs, such as:
Have you heard of the "Pacific Garbage Patch" and want to learn more? Contrary to some
reports, it is not a giant floating island of trash in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is,
however, a major environmental concern. A better analogy than an island is a plastic soup, with
debris found throughout the water column. Here are a few links to organizations with information
on the problem of plastic pollution in the ocean:
Lending Library or
find it on their website.
Photographer Chris Jordan has created a blog, www.midwayjourney.com, documenting the experience of visiting Midway Island with other artists and journalists. The site includes powerful videos depicting the impact of plastic debris on the Laysan albatross population that nests there. This project also has a Youtube channel with many short videos.
Looking for images of marine debris that you can use? Find some on the
Marine Debris Program's flickr page.
Reports on the topic of Marine Debris:
Access California Coastal Cleanup Day historical data, including "top ten" lists of debris items, and collection data dating back to 1989.
Page last updated February 2017.
Auman, H. J. et al., 1997. Plastic ingestion by Laysan Albatross chicks on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, in 1994 and 1995. In: Albatross Biology and Conservation, 239-244 [online]
Barnes, David K.A. Galgani, Francois Thompson, Richard C. Barlaz, Morton, 2009. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. In: The Royal Society Biological Sciences Vol. 364, No. 1526, 1985-1998 [online]
Barnes D.K.A., 2002. Invasion by marine life on plastic debris. In: Nature 416, 808-809 [online]
Baulch, Sarah, Clare Perry, 2014. Evaluating the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin 80, 210-221. [online]
Bravo Rebolledo, E. L. Van Franeker, J. A. Jansen, O. E., Brasseur, S. M.J.M, 2013. Plastic ingestion by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in The Netherlands. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin 67, 200-202 [online]
Choy, C. A. Drazen, J. C., 2013. Plastic for dinner? Observations of frequent debris ingestion by pelagic predatory fishes from the central North Pacific. In: Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol. 485, 155-163 [online]
Jambeck, Jenna R., Geyer, Roalnd, Wilcox, Chris, Siegler, Theodore R., Perryman, Miriam, Andrady, Anthony, Narayan, Ramani, Law, Kara Lavender. Plastic Waste Inputs from Land into the Ocean. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 347, Issue 6223, 768-771. [online]
Leichter, J. J., 2010. Investigating the Accumulation of Plastic Debris in the North Pacific Gyre. In: Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry - Marine Environmental Modeling & Analysis, Eds., K. Omori, X. Guo, N. Yoshie, N. Fujii, I. C. Handoh, A. Isobe and S. Tanabe, pp. 251-259 [online]
McIlgorm, A., Campbell H. F. and Rule M. J., 2008. Understanding the economic benefits and costs of controlling marine debris in the APEC region. APEC Project MRC 02/2007 [online]
Moore, C. J., S. L. Moore, M. K. Leecaster, and S. B. Weisberg, 2001. A comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific Central Gyre. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 1297-1300. [online]
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Program. 2014 Report on the Entanglement of Marine Species in Marine Debris with an Emphasis on Species in the United States. Silver Spring, MD. 28 pp [online]
Pendleton, Linwood Kildow, Judith, 2006. The Non-Market Value of Beach Recreation in California. In: Shore & Beach Shore Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 34-37 [online]
Rios, L. M. Moore, C. Jones, P. R., 2007. Persistent organic pollutants carried by synthetic polymers in the ocean environment. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin 54, 1230-1237 online]
Rochman, CM. Hoh, E. Kurobe, T. Teh, S.J., 2013. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress. In: Nature, Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 3263 [online]
Rochman, Chelsea M., Akbar Tahir, Susan L. Williams, Dolores V. Baxa, Rosalyn Lam, Jeffrey T. Miller, Foo-Ching Teh, Shinta Werorilangi & Swee J. Teh, 2015. Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption. In: Nature, Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 14340 [online]
Schlining, K., von Thun, S., Kuhnz, L., Schlining, B., Lundsten, L., Jacobsen Stout, N., Chaney, L., Connor, J., 2013. Debris in the deep: Using a 22-year video annotation database to survey marine litter in Monterey Canyon, Central California, USA, Deep-Sea Research Part 1: Oceanographic Research Papers, Vol. 79, 96-105 [online]
Shavonne K. Stanek, Rebecca Sutton, Sherri A. Mason, Ellen Willis-Norton, Ian F. Wren, Carolynn Box 2015. Microplastic Contamination in San Francisco Bay. [poster online]
Stickel, B. H., A. Jahn and W. Kier 2012. The Cost to West Coast Communities of Dealing with Trash, Reducing Marine Debris. Prepared by Kier Associates for U.S. E.P.A., Region 9 [online]
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel-GEF (2012). Impacts of Marine Debris on Biodiversity: Current Status and Potential Solutions, Montreal, Technical Series No. 67, 61 pages. [online]
Marine Debris: Understanding, Preventing and mitigating the Significant Adverse Impacts on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity (2016). Technical Series No. 83. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, 78 pages. [online]
Van Franeker, J.A. & The SNS Fulmar Study Group, 2013. Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring along Dutch and North Sea coasts - Update 2010 and 2011. IMARES Report C076/13. IMARES, Texel. 61pp [online]
Van Sebille, E., Wilcox, C., Lebreton, L., Maximenko, N., Hardesty, B.D., Van Franeker, J.A., Eriksen, M., Siegel, D., Galgani, F., & Lavender Law, K. 2015. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris. Environmental Research Letters, Volume 10, Number 12 [online]